Retromopszucht vom Bromberg
The Pug's nose

The Pug's nose

One of the most important organs of the dog is its nose. He is a macrosmat, whose sense of smell is extremely pronounced. A dog can smell about a million times better in relation to humans (a microsmat) and can absorb sniffing smells much more intensively - so the dog's nose is a particularly sensitive organ.

Dogs track down prey with their nose, sense danger or use it for finding a partner. They read with their nose the tree in the city park as we humans study a newspaper. In order to fulfill this function, the inside of the nose must be able to occupy the corresponding space. Therefore, the smelling performance of larger dogs is generally better than that of smaller dogs and those of dogs with standard snouts, many times better than those of the flat-mouthed ones.

Normocephalic (normal skull) dogs have a much larger surface in the inside of the nose to absorb and store fragrance molecules. These pass through the nostrils into the nasal cavities, which are lined with mucous membranes. Here are the so-called nasal clams, small cartilaginous lamellae, which increase the surface of the olfactory mucosa many times over. Here are also the glands that provide the dog's nose constantly with moisture - so the dog's nose is damp and cold. The information gathered in the nasal mucosa fragrance particles are transmitted by electrical impulses directly through the olfactory nerve to the olfactory center in the brain and analyzed. It is easy to understand that in extreme changes of such a sensory apparatus, the function is disturbed.

If you make the following schematic representation of the german JUH Siegen once aware, it is easier to imagine what the extremely flat-faced pug from this difficult structure may have been left. Basically, the entire upstream share of the snout part is missing and all parts normally located there have to be compressed on the remaining part of the snout:

Especially the nasal turbinates are malformed as a result of this circumstance and lead in some rising temperatures via swelling of the mucous membranes to some very massive breathing problems. It is certainly also clear that space problems as well as disturbances of the functions 'heating up' and 'filtering' of the inhaled air occur here. As maybe not everyone knows, the breathing of the pugs works like the human's breathing of negative pressure. That is, the air is drawn into the lungs via a negative pressure in the chest.

If the nostrils are normal round and wide, this function is effortless and you can get enough oxygen with each breath. However, if the nostrils are narrowed or become slits, as in many pugs, the air can not flow as quickly as the negative pressure makes it necessary. Since a dog is a nasal breather, breathing through the snout only in extreme emergency, so creates a constantly increased negative pressure, which has dramatic consequences for the sensitive tissue of the entire respiratory tract has:

Forced snout breathing can lead to increased infections of the respiratory tract, as the respiratory air is so much less warmed and cleaned. The soft palate can become villous, the tonsils can be pulled back and forth with each breath into the lumen of the respiratory tract, the larynx may become unstable and collapse, the punctured pockets and / or thickened mucous membrane may narrow the glottis, the trachea may collapse.

Later consequence of such a difficult oxygen supply is that the heart has to work much more, in order to supply the body and its organs by sufficient pumping nevertheless with sufficient oxygen. This leads to a constantly elevated temperature (hyperthermia), which can be dangerous especially at higher temperatures - recognizable by the heavy and long-lasting panting of the affected dogs. Due to the constant overuse of the heart, it can also change this itself, which initially lead faster to exhaustion, but can also be associated with sudden cardiac death at any time.

That's why it's so important for me to breed retropugs with mesocephalic facial skulls that are functional again because of the foreign blood part.

Bringing healthy animals of a suitable race and the subsequent displacement breeding back to the breed pug takes us away immediately from the breeding extremes of purebred standard breeding and with great reliability back to the more genetically richer and more phenotypically moderate pug that can and may be dog again.

On this topic, the well-known Austrian geneticist Irene Sommerfeld-Stur is quoted here:

"From an objective point of view, therefore, there are no really legitimate arguments against crossbreeding, so in the interest of the health of pedigree dogs, they should always be taken into account when the genetic variance of a population is exhausted or if health problems of a racial population are no longer mitigated by other measures Dogmatic rejection of any kind of crossbreeding by breeders and breeders seems counterproductive and unjustified in the sense of the intention expressed by breed societies consistently as one of the most important goals for breeding healthy pedigree dogs counterproductive and unjustified."

A link to an English study (BOAS study of the University of Cambridge) on the Topic:

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-4747346/Breathing-issues-pugs-t-predicted-appearance.html